WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a 1[SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC] and to secure to all its citizens:

JUSTICE, social, economic and political;

LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;

EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;

and to promote among them all;

FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the 2[unity and integrity of the Nation];

IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HERE BY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.


1. Substituted by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, section 2, for “SOVEREIGN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC” (w.e.f. 3-1-1977).

2. Substituted by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, section 2, for “unity of the Nation” (w.e.f. 3-1-1977).